04 Jan 2017

North Branch Timeline

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The North Branch Timeline is designed to support the student of Western American history by providing a larger context for events that shaped the course of exploration and settlement in the Southwest. Larger impact events help to provide additional details that support understanding of the how and why of later events in the historical drama.

Discovery: Florida

Discovery and exploration of “La Florida” by Juan Ponce de Leoón: 1513.

Exploration: Gulf of Mexico

Alonso de Pineda explored the Gulf of Mexico from Yucatan Peninsula northward exploring ng the Texas Coastline to Florida: 1519.

Conquest of Mexico

Conquest of the Aztec empire in Méexico by Hernnádo Cortéz: 1519- 1521.

Discovery of Baja California

Fortú Jiménez discovers the Baja Peninsula and names California: 1533.

Hernando de Soto

Hernando de Soto Expedition, interior of North America south of the Appalachian Mountains and costal highlands between Texas and Florida. Traveling 3,700 miles: 1539- 1543.

Pedro de Tovar

Sent by Coronado a small party of soldiers led by Pedro de Tovar and Fray Juan Padilla used Indian guides to visit Hopi Villages in Northeastern Arizona, with Captain Garcia LoÓpez who became the first European to see the Grand Canyon of the Colorado: 1540.

Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo

Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo reaches the Pacific Coast, exploring from Southern California to Oregon, creating detailed descriptions of the coast line. The Spanish had a good understanding of the size of their North American empire as a result of the de Soto, Coronado, and Cabrillo expeditions: 1542- 43.

New Mexico Missions

Franciscan missionaries establish missions among Native Americans in San Felipe de Nuevo México in the region explored by Coronado forty years earlier: 1580's.

Roanoke Established

Establishment of the English Colony at Roanoke off the coast of North Carolina: 1585.

New Mexico Settled

Juan de Oñate leads an expedition to take possession of New Mexico, he proceeds to launch the first of three expeditions to locate the Pacific Ocean from New Mexico. Oñate established settlements, first at the confluence of the Río Grande and Río Chama in Northern New Mexico: 1598.

Enrico Martínez

Enrico Martínez produces a map of New Mexico showing Indian Pueblos and the route from Mexico City into the Northern Río Grande Valley. Martínez's map was based on the explorations of Onate. The map shows New Mexico, the Rio Grande, Pecos, and Conchos Rivers: 1601

Jamestown Established

Establishment of Jamestown by the English: 1607.

Santa Fe

The founding of Santa Fe: 1610.

Ute Indians

The Ute's have the horse: 1650.

Pueblo Revolt

Pueblo Revolt, resulting from harsh treatment of native populations by the Spanish, resulting in the killing of 400 Spanish settlers, and driving 2,000 settlers from the province. Spain reconquers New Mexico in 1692 with Diego de Vargas marching unopposed into Santa Fe: 1680

Rivera's Expeditions

Juan Antionio Mariá de Rivera, the first expedition from Santa Fe from June 25 until July 30 to look for silver in the San Juan Mountains. His second expedition from Santa Fe left in late September, returning November 4, retracing his first route, and traveling north west from the Dolores River into West Central Colorado looking for the Rio Tizón and the region called Teguayo. Teguayo was a large area near the Great Salt Lake, believed to be the place of the birth of the Aztecs: 1765

Founding Alta California

Founding of Alta California, the Portoiá Expedition with a group of Franciscans led by Junípero Serra into Alta California. Serra founds the missions at San Diego and Monterey: 1769.

Dominguez-Escalante Expedition

Fathers Dominguez and Vélez de Escalante Expedition from Santa Fe to Monterey in Alta California. The Fathers retraced Rivera’s route to the Delta Gateway, then using native guides they continue northwest over the Grand Mesa, Bookcliff Range, and into the Uinta/ Green River area of North Eastern Utah, traveling west and south they discover the Bearded Utes, and a route back to the Hopi Villages and Santa Fe from crossing the Colorado River: 1776.

At the start of the 19th Century events in the west took a different course. With the exploration of the Louisiana Purchase by Louis and Clark (1804- 06) American interests expanded west with the eventual result of becoming a continental power. The United States was built on the fur of the beaver, with new territory and rivers rich with pelts, trappers, traders, and explorers would grow a nations interest in the new opportunities offered west of the Mississippi River. The first half of the 19th Century left two powers, Mexico and the United States sparring over territory. First Texas, then New Mexico and Alta California, were grand targets for a nation wrapped in the concept of “Mainfest Destiny.”

Louis & Antione Robidoux

Louis and Antione Robidoux set up a trading agency in Taos: 1820's

Antione Robidoux

Greater numbers of American fur trappers and traders are in the Taos area. Antione Robidoux establishes the first trading post in Western Colorado, Fort Uncompahgre, to facilitate commerce with the Utes, supplying free trappers with goods and collecting of fur pelts. Fort Uncompahgre was located in the Delta Gateway, at the north endpoint of the Navajo-Uncompahgre Trail, pioneered by Rivera and the Dominguez-Escalante expedition: 1820's.

Mexican Independence

Mexico gains independence from Spain, trade restrictions are lifted in New Mexico allowing locals to expand trade with the Utes. With independence Americans, who have been banned from trade under Spain, are allowed to freely trade with New Mexico. Restrictions placed on foreigners included tariffs and licenses for trade and trapping of furs. Taos becomes the center of the fur trapping community in New Mexico: 1821

Fur Trapping in New Mexico

“By 1824, Americans from Missouri were trapping and trading with the Indians in the Mountains along the tributaries of the Colorado and GreenRivers . . . " Hill, Joseph J. “The Old Spanish Trail,” "The Hispanic American Historical Review," IV (August 1921) 464.

Fort Uncompahgre

Establishment of Ft. Uncompahgre near the junction of the Gunnison and Uncompahgre Rivers, south of present day Delta, Colorado. Fort Uncompahgre is the first Anglo built structure on Colorado's Western Slope. Fort Uncompahgre was a trading post in the Delta Gateway area of West Central Colorado, facilitating local trade with Ute Indians and free trappers. It is located in the "Delta Bottoms," the same area where Rivera and the Dominquez- Escalante Expeditions visited 50 years prior: 1826- 28.

Armijo Expedition

Taking 60 men Armijo left Abiquiu on November 6, with the goal of discovering a route to Alta California. The journey took almost 3 months, crossing northern Arizona to the Colorado River "Crossing of the Fathers," continuing west to Pipe Spring and then the Virgin River. Armijo's route continued down the Colorado River to the Mojave Villages, west on the Mojave River and through Cajon Pass into Southern California. Armijo was first to take trade goods westward from Abiquiu to Mission San Gabriel: 1826.

Robidoux Brothers

Louis and Antione Robidoux apply and are granted Mexican citizenship Louis working with Antione as the mainstay in Santa Fe for trading in furs for American goods that they had imported from St. Louis. Louis works in the trading house and Antione is in the field collecting furs for trade goods with Indians and trappers: 1829.

Fort Uintah

Fort Robidoux, also known as Fort Uintah or Fort Winty is established at the junction of the Uintah and Whiterocks Rivers in the Uintah Basin of Northeastern Utah. Antione Robidoux bought out William Reed who operated a trading post at the location since 1828. The Reed Trading Post was the first permanent non-native residence and business in Utah. Robidoux competed against Fort Davie Crockett, located in Brown’s Hole on the Green River and the traders/trappers working out of Bent’s Fort in eastern Colorado: 1832.

Louis Robidoux in Santa Fe

Louis elected to Santa Fe town council, by 1839 he becomes First Alcalde of Santa Fe and marries Guadalupe Garcia: 1834.

Mexican War

The United States annexes Texas, the Mexican War starts over boundary disputes between Texas and Mexico. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo results in the United States acquiring New Mexico, Alta California, and undisputed control over Texas: 1845.

Gunnison- Beckwith Expedition

On May 3, 1853, Johyn W. Gunnison received orders to explore and survey a route to the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains between the 38th and 39th parallels. Leaving St. Louis in June, Gunnison's team arrived in Manti, Utah Territory by the middle of October. Gunnison traveled over the North Branch of the Old Spanish Trail, through Cochetopa Pass and over to the Delta Gateway and Fort Uncompahgre. Gunnison proceeded west meeting the main Old Spanish Trail at the Green River: 1853.

Fremont's Fifth Expedition

Col. J. C. Fremont left for his 5th expedition to explore the Central Rocky Mountains looking for a transcontinental railroad route following the 38th parallel. Traveling over the Santa Fe Trail to Bent's Fort on the Arkansas River, Fremont went west to the San Luis Valley and over Coachetopa Pass into the Gunnison River watershed. Fremont visited the Delta Bottoms and Gateway and noted the existence of Fort Uncompahgre: 1853.

Marcy Expedition

Marcey left Fort Bridger in south west Wyoming with forty men to cross the mountains by the most direct route to New Mexico on November 24, 1857. The march was fifty one days long ending up at Fort Massachusetts in New Mexico. It was believed that the trip would take twenty-five days: 1857.
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